Berlin Aging Study (BASE)


The multidisciplinary Berlin Aging Study (BASE), initially directed by the late Paul B. Baltes and Karl Ulrich Mayer, was started in 1989 under the sponsorship of the former West Berlin Academy of Sciences and Technology and its Committee on Age and Societal Development. Later, the study came under the auspices of the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences. Ulman Lindenberger heads the current BASE core group at the MPI for Human Development.

The study involves eight measurement occasions spaced over 18 years. In addition, several subsamples have been recruited for intensive study. The distinguishing features of BASE include:

  • a focus on the very old (70 to 100+ years);
  • a locally representative sample, stratified by age and sex;
  • a broad-based interdisciplinarity (originally involving two research units from the Freie Universität Berlin, Internal Medicine and Psychiatry, and two from this Institute, Sociology and Psychology)
  • the investigation of changes associated with aging and death in the very old

In addition to discipline-specific topics, four integrative theoretical orientations guide the study:

  • differential aging
  • continuity versus discontinuity of aging
  • range and limits of plasticity and reserve capacity
  • aging as a systemic phenomenon

BASE in More Depth

The initial focus of BASE (1990–1993) was to obtain a heterogeneous sample, stratified by age and sex, of individuals aged 70 to 100+ years who completed a 14-session Intensive Protocol that involved detailed measures from each of the four participating disciplines. The original sample participating in this initial Intensive Protocol consisted of 258 men and 258 women from the western districts of Berlin. Seven longitudinal follow-ups of the survivors from this initial sample involving different depths of assessment have been completed at approximately 2-yearly intervals. In addition, mortality information about the entire BASE sample is updated at regular intervals.

The initial sample of 516 individuals formed the basis of the cross-sectional analyses reported in two monographs (in German: Mayer & Baltes, 1996, 1999; cf. Lindenberger, Smith, Mayer, & Baltes, 2010; in English: Baltes & Mayer, 1999, 2001). To date, longitudinal data in BASE are available for eight measurement occasions spanning more than 18 years. Most of the 516 individuals who participated in the 14-session multidisciplinary assessment at the first measurement occasion about 20 years ago are no longer alive. At the eighth (and probably final) measurement occasion in 2008–2009, 22 surviving participants were reexamined, with a focus on psychological, geriatric, and dental assessments.

Data from the Berlin Aging Study continue to provide the basis for new original publications on individual differences in late-life development. Furthermore, DNA specimens, derived from blood collected about 24 years ago, have been retrieved and analyzed for about 380 BASE participants. Adding genetic information to the BASE data set allows researchers to explore and test genetic contributions to individual differences in late-life development.

Core Group

Julia Delius Max Planck Institute for Human Development
Alexandra M. Freund University of Zurich
Denis Gerstorf Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Paolo Ghisletta University of Geneva
Shu-Chen Li Technische Universität Dresden
Ulman Lindenberger (Sprecher) Max Planck Institut for Human Development
Christiane Hoppmann University of British Columbia
Dana Kotter-Grühn North Carolina State University
Nilam Ram Penn State University
Jacqui Smith (Ko-Sprecherin) University of Michigan
Ursula M. Staudinger Columbia University
Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin
Gert G. Wagner German Institute for Economic Research & Max Planck Institute for Human Development

Recent Publications

Hertzog, C., Hülür, G., Gerstorf, D., & Pearman, A. M. (2018). Is subjective memory change in old age based on accurate monitoring of age-related memory change? Evidence from two longitudinal studies. Psychology and Aging, 33, 273–287. https://doi.org/10.1037/pag0000232

König, M., Drewelies, J., Norman, K., Spira, D., ... Lindenberger, U., ... Demuth, I. (2018). Historical trends in modifiable indicators of cardiovascular health and self-rated health among older adults: Cohort differences over 20 years between the Berlin Aging Study (BASE) and the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II). PLoS ONE, 13(1): e0191699. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191699

Walhovd, K. B., Fjell, A. M., Westerhausen, R., Nyberg, L., Ebmeier, K. P., Lindenberger, U., ... for Lifebrain Consortium. (2018). Healthy minds from 0–100 years: Optimising the use of European brain imaging cohorts ("Lifebrain"). European Psychiatry, 50, 47–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.12.006

Delius, J. A. M., Düzel, S., Gerstorf, D., & Lindenberger, U. (2017). Berlin Aging Studies (BASE and BASE-II). In N. A. Pachana (Ed.), Encyclopedia of geropsychology (pp. 386–395). New York: Springer.

Mueller, S., Wagner, J., Voelkle, M. C., Smith, J., & Gerstorf, D. (2017). The interplay of personality and functional health in old and very old age: Dynamic within-person interrelations across up to 13 years. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000173

See also publication list on the BASE website


Julia Delius
Ulman Lindenberger
Gert G. Wagner

Ylva Köhncke (postdoc)

Martin Becker (database management)

For external cooperation partners in the BASE core group, see overview to the left.


Liefebrain Logo

BASE and BASE-II are participating in Lifebrain, an EU funded project. It integrates data from 6000 participants in 11 European neuroimaging studies carried out in 7 countries.

Website: www.lifebrain.uio.no

Walhovd, K. B., Fjell, A. M., Westerhausen, R., Nyberg, L., Ebmeier, K. P., Lindenberger, U., ... for Lifebrain Consortium. (2018). Healthy minds from 0–100 years: Optimising the use of European brain imaging cohorts ("Lifebrain"). European Psychiatry, 50, 47–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.12.006

BASE Website

Logo Berliner Altersstudie | Berliner Altersstudie / Berlin Aging Study

Berlin Aging Study (BASE)


BASE Monograph

Die Berliner Altersstudie 2009 Cover

Lindenberger, U., Smith, J., Mayer, K. U., & Baltes, P. B. (Hrsg.). (2010). Die Berliner Altersstudie (3. erw. Aufl.). Berlin: Akademie Verlag.

Table of Content (in German)