Panel 2: Emotions and the Creation of "Others"

One category of "emotion work" frequently encountered in historical records, but still insufficiently investigated over the longue durée, is the power of emotions to create not only in-groups, but also out-groups, marginalized cultures and "others" of all kinds. This process may take various forms. In certain circumstances it appears that communal emotions of love, attachment, empathy, and trust have been used to generate belonging and in-group identities; at the same time, disgust and distrust have also been consciously fostered by power-groups in order to segregate others (as in the anti-Muslim and anti-Semitic propaganda campaigns mounted by the Spanish church especially in the 16th and 17th centuries). In other eras and regions, communal emotions seem to have been created and strengthened by grassroots communities, as it happened during the 20th century among homosexual circles that promoted their own feeling rules, thus marking their distance from the emotional mainstream. In either case, the category of created emotional communities may either cross or align with other lines of social grouping, such as class, religion, ethnicity and gender, and can certainly include the creation of communal identities among different regions of the globe (e.g., the representations of Europeans by non-Europeans in the era of European colonialism). On a more basic level, while differentiation between humans and animals has long since served as a major creator of "otherness" and "sameness", the emotionalization and anthropomorphization of certain animals seems to question these differences. Panelists were asked to probe the role of emotions in processes of creating "others", and to address the question of how best we are to understand these processes and their historical consequences in the course of providing well-researched case studies of emotions and the creation of "others".


Andrea Noble
(University of Durham, UK)
Feeling Rules in Mexico: Crying in Colonial Contexts 

Christianne Smit
(Utrecht University, Netherlands)
Fear and fascination – Savages in the Slums and the Colonies

Makoto Harris Takao
(University of Western Australia)
A Comparative Study of Emotional Pedagogies within the Society of Jesus and its Presence in Sixteenth-Century Japan