Guiding Concepts

While we draw on many scholarly traditions, the Center for Humans & Machines (CHM) emphasizes three guiding concepts for studying the impact of Artificial Intelligence and Digitalization on human society, economy and culture. These concepts capture our approach to generating, refining and exploring research questions.

Understanding machine behavior, including human perception and reaction to such behavior, requires concepts and methodologies from across the behavioral sciences.  
To anticipate the impact of future technologies on humans, we combine our imagination of possible futures, with a scientific approach to studying behavior.  
The future will be determined by competition between superminds: groups of humans augmented by culture, institutions, communication technology and Artificial Intelligence.  


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  • Bonnefon, J.-F., Shariff, A., & Rahwan, I. (2016). The social dilemma of autonomous vehicles. Science, 352(6293), 1573–1576.
  • Crandall, J. W., Oudah, M., Tennom, Ishowo-Oloko, F., Abdallah, S., Bonnefon, J. F., Cebrian, M., Shariff, A., Goodrich, M. A., & Rahwan, I. (2018). Cooperating with machines. Nature Communications, 9(1), 1–12.
  • Henrich, J. (2016). The secret of our success: How culture is driving human evolution, domesticating our species, and making us smarter. Princeton University Press.
  • Köbis, N., Bonnefon, J.-F., & Rahwan, I. (2021). Bad machines corrupt good morals. Nature Human Behaviour, 5(6), 679–685.
  • Malone, T. W. (2018). Superminds: The surprising power of people and computers thinking together. Little, Brown Spark.
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  • Rahwan, I., Cebrian, M., Obradovich, N., Bongard, J., Bonnefon, J.-F., Breazeal, C., Crandall, J. W., Christakis, N. A., Couzin, I. D., Jackson, M. O., Jennings, N. R., Kamar, E., Kloumann, I. M., Larochelle, H., Lazer, D., McElreath, R., Mislove, A., Parkes, D. C., Pentland, A. S., Roberts, M. E., Shariff, A., Tenenbaum, J. B., & Wellman, M. (2019). Machine behaviour. Nature568(7753), 477–486.
  • Rahwan, I., Crandall, J. W., & Bonnefon, J.-F. (2020). Intelligent machines as social catalysts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America117(14), 7555–7557.
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